Clayton Christensen wrote extensively about disruptive innovation. Here is a book summary of his landmark work.
Based on his work here is a tool to gauge whether or not an innovation is disruptive.
Does it target non consumers or people who are over-served by an incumbent’s existing offering?
Is the offer not as good as an incumbent’s existing offering as judged by historical performance measures?
Is the innovation simpler to use, more convenient or more affordable than existing offerings?
Does the offering have a technological enabler that can carry it upmarket and allow it to improve?
Is the technology paired with a business model innovation that allows it to sustain and sale?
Are existing providers motivated to ignore the new innovation and not threatened at the outset?